Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a situation where a women’s hormones go out of balance. It generally causes problem in periods and can bring about difficulty in getting pregnant. If not treated well it has the capability to cause many health problems like diabetes, heart diseases etc.
What exactly happens when you have PCOS?
- The female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone go out of order due which it forms not so harmful cysts in the ovaries
- The overproduction of male sex hormone (androgen) due to the less production of female hormone. Excess of androgen can restrain ovulation and can also curb in the generation and development of egg.
- The size of the ovary may differ when you suffer from PCOS in certain cases.
- There is excess production of insulin ( a hormone that converts start and sugar to energy) due to which insulin is not used well by the body and the sugar level of the body goes up.
CAUSES OF PCOS
While the exact reason for PCOS happening in a women is still unknown.But doctors assume some certain causes to be the reason for PCOS. They are:
- Obesity can be the main cause of PCOS because obesity causes disturbance in hormones of the body.
- Genes play a great role in PCOS because there are cases studied when a mother with PCOS can be the cause to develop PCOS in her daughter.
- An excess of production of the hormone androgen can be contributing cause.Excess of production of insulin can also lead to the excess of generation of androgen.
- Low grade inflammation can lead to the generation of androgen as well. Low grade inflammation is a response produced against infections by our body’s white blood cells. A PCOS patient is diagnosed with Low Grade Inflammation this inflammation stimulates polycysticness in ovaries.
SYMPTOMS OF PCOS
The main symptom during PCOS occurs due to the excess of production of the male hormone. They are:
- Body and skin related: Excess of hair growth on the not so hairy parts of the body that are face, chest, toes, thumbs, stomach. Occurrence of acne on the body , weight gain , excess of loss of hair
- Periods and fertility related: Irregular periods. The type of periods can vary in a PCOS patient that can be infrequent periods, irregular periods or heavy periods.
- Emotionally and mentally related: Frequent mood swings may occur. Women may also lead to a depression type stage, anxiety and sleep disorder.
Medical Diagnosis of PCOS
When any of the above PCOS symptoms found to be true, the first step is to book an appointment with your gynecologist. There is not any particular test to diagnose PCOS so your gynecologist will perform these physical and blood test.
- Physical examination – The gynecologist will measure your weight , BMI , blood pressure.
- Pelvic examination –The gynecologist will do a pelvic exam to see if the ovaries have enlarged or if the ovaries are swollen due to the number of cysts.
- Blood tests –These include thyroid function test (to measure thyroid hormone level), glucose tolerance test (to measure blood sugar level), Lipid level test (to measure the cholesterol level in your body.
- Ultrasound – A vaginal ultrasound that helps to judge the reproductive organs by real time images.
Complications regarding PCOS
Women with PCOS are prone to the following complications:
- Hypertension- women with PCOS have a higher rate of hypertension or high blood pressure
- High Cholestrol-In PCOS there is an increased risk of getting higher level of bad cholesterol(LDL) and reduction of good cholesterol(HDL)
- Anxiety and Depression- Having noticeable physical changes in the body like weight gain, facial hair growth, acne ,etc can also lead a PCOS women to anxiety and depression.
- Heart Attack –Hypertension in a PCOS patient can also lead to it adverse effect that is heart attack
- Diabetes –Due to the increase in blood sugar level it leads to diabetes.